Dark Matters: Twisted But True 2011 English English

Posted by on July 30, 2012

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Noble: This is
your one and only warning.
Your screen will soon be filled
with dramatized stories
of scientific research
that some people may find
controversial and disturbing.
Viewer discretion is advised.
Ask yourself, “Does progress
always come at a price?
Are some experiments too risky
or just wrong?”
A little curiosity
can’t hurt anyone…
Can it?
Original Air Date on July 21, 2012
Scientific knowledge
cannot be unlearned.
It has a power of its own.
No matter how or why
it is obtained,
good or evil intentions
do not always result
in good and evil outcomes,
as you’ll see,
in these three stories
of experimentation
and…unforeseen consequences.
I’ll introduce you
to a brainwashing,
needle-happy psychiatrist
funded by the C.I.A.
[ Electricity crackles ]
And you’ll meet
a world-famous chemist
who infects a little boy
with rabies
to prove his own theory right.
But first meet a doctor eager
to bring a man back to life.
And not just any man.
A murderer for whom the state
of California has other plans.
Dr. Robert Cornish
is a brilliant scientist.
Time magazine please.
Noble: At 22, he was the youngest man
to gain a doctorate
at the University of California.
Now age 30,
he’s planning something big.
My name is
Dr. Robert Cornish.
You may have heard of me.
I’m about to carry out
an experimental procedure
that will change the world.
Oh, it’s radical, all right.
Put simply, I am going to
bring the dead back to life.
In the 1930s,
the science of resuscitation
really did not exist,
unlike today where people
can be resuscitated
if certain measures are taken
within a short period of time
after their death.
So if someone drowned
or was electrocuted,
they could not
be meaningfully resuscitated.
Noble: Cornish hasn’t yet
brought a human back to life,
but he has tried resuscitating
dead dogs.
This is his fourth attempt.
He begins within minutes
of the dog’s last breath.
He knows this accurately
because he killed it.
Cornish injects the dog’s corpse
with a special solution
of his own design.
Swaminath: Cornish’s secret elixir is
a component of multiple things.
which is a water solution,
defibrinated blood,
which is blood
with the clots taken out of it,
which is a heart stimulant,
and heparin,
which is a blood thinner.
In fact, many of these things
are still used
during resuscitation today.
Noble: Cornish lays the dog
on a new invention
called the teeter-totter board.
Swaminath: In order to get
this elixir around the body,
he develops a seesaw mechanism
to increase the circulation.
[ Heartbeat ]
Noble: After nearly four minutes
of death,
the dog breathes again.
Hey, Laz, old fella!
You’re back!
Good boy!
Noble: He’s killed four dogs,
all named Lazarus.
With Lazarus IV, he finds
the secret to resurrection –
begin within
four minutes of death.
Any longer,
and the heart won’t restart.
Laz, old fellow,
you’re my living,
breathing success proof.
Robert Cornish.
Remember that name, Laz.
One day,
everyone’s going to know it.
Noble: Cornish is ready
to revive a human.
Time magazine.
Editor, please.
Tell him I have his scoop.
Noble: Cornish gets all the publicity
he could hope for –
some good,
some not so great.
He becomes the target
of animal rights activists,
and his relationship
with the press
does him no favors at work.
Lederer: Cornish’s experiments
are being covered daily
in the popular press,
and then he gets a letter
from the Dean,
who tells him science
is a serious affair,
not something
for public sensation,
and Cornish is unceremoniously
tossed out of the university.
He has a brilliant idea.
Why not make a feature film
in which the scientist
is the one reanimating dogs
that have actually been killed
at the animal pound?
And that way he’s able
to turn reality on its head.
Dad, it’s Scooter.
The dog catcher got him.
did you hear me, Dad?
Scooter was dead!
The dog catcher got him.
You’ve got to
do something!
In the course of the film,
it’s the scientist who
reanimates this boy’s lost dog,
who’s been gassed at the pound.
[ Crowd cheers ]
Didn’t I tell you he was the
greatest doctor in the world?
[ Crowd cheers ]
The boy and his dog
are reunited
and it’s science –
and the scientist –
that’s brought it about,
and it’s really a testament
to Robert Cornish’s unique flair
for self-promotion.
Dr. Cornish
is the man of the hour.
Noble: But Cornish’s ultimate goal
is to reanimate a human.
And there’s only one place
he can go
to find someone less valuable
to the public than a dog…
…death row.
Cohen: What Cornish discovered
with his experiments in dogs
was that the best approach
was to obtain the bodies
very, very soon after death.
And, so,
with the prisoner population,
he had an ideal means
to do this.
He knew the time of death,
they hadn’t sustained
any overt injury,
and they were not suffering from
any specific type of disease.
He writes to prison wardens
in search
of a freshly executed corpse.
Cornish: I, Robert Cornish,
renowned research scientist,
humbly request permission
from you, sir,
to further
my pioneering research.
It would give me the chance
to perfect a method
to revive
far more deserving patients,
and no doubt your name would
go down in the history books.
But every prison rejects him.
Without access to a human body,
his reanimation technique
will become yesterday’s news.
That’s not going to happen
to Robert Cornish.
Noble: It’s 13 years
since Robert Cornish was denied
a fresh corpse for reanimation.
His lab is now a tin shed
in his garden.
His teeter-totter board is gone,
replaced by a new device
made from a vacuum cleaner,
radiator tubing, an iron wheel,
and 60,000 shoelace eyes –
Cornish’s version
of a heart-lung machine.
The metal shoe eyes increase
the surface area of the blood,
allowing it
to absorb more oxygen.
He took the blood
from the patient,
pressing it through
this column of shoe eyes,
and pumping back
into the patient.
By running the blood
across these shoe eyes,
it thinned the blood,
allowing oxygen to enter.
The blood,
as it re-entered the patient,
would then be superoxygenated,
hopefully reviving them.
Noble: Cornish steps out
of his garden shed
back into the limelight.
This time, he succeeds
36-year-old death-row inmate
Thomas McMonigle,
convicted of the brutal murder
of a 15-year-old girl.
Man: Stand.
[ Prison door slams ]
Sit down.
Good afternoon.
This machine will be, well,
plumbed into your body.
Oxygen will be forced
by this blower through here.
That’s a tube
filled with 60,000 shoelace eyes
to aerate the blood.
60,000, huh?
Well, now, that’s a good amount.
You sure
this thing works, Doc?
Well, there are
some wrinkles still, obviously.
Air bubbles in the blood
can be troublesome,
but when the time comes,
it’ll work like clockwork.
Lederer: He had a prototype
for a machine,
but it’s clear
he hadn’t worked out
all the potential difficulties.
One of the major problems
was the fact that he had
a column that had shoelace eyes,
in which the blood
would be dropped over,
but it had the potential
for picking up
all kinds of air bubbles.
Air bubbles going into
any living creature
would mean death
rather than life.
I would,
in effect, be reborn.
Maybe that will
wash away my sins, huh?
that I couldn’t say.
But your name, though,
would certainly be famous.
Right under mine –
the first reanimation
of a human being.
Well, it looks like
we got ourselves a deal.
Cornish has found his man.
Sure got my permission,
All Cornish needs now
is access to the body
immediately after execution.
Now, timing is everything
in resuscitation.
Within minutes
of the blood and oxygen supply
being cut off from the brain,
it starts to die,
so for him to have any success
in these experiments,
he has
within minutes of the event.
Warden Duffy,
thank you for your time.
So, you are prepared
to give me access to the body.
We are.
That is excellent news!
Any time
after 1:00 a.m.
I see.
[ Chuckles ]
I’ve not been clear.
With the execution at midnight,
a one-hour delay
will make the experiment
completely pointless.
The body will be damaged
beyond repair.
[ Chuckles ]
It seems, Thomas, there is
some concern that legally,
once you have served your
sentence, i.e., being, um, executed.
They may not be able to –
to hold you,
were you to be revived.
In the case of McMonigle,
you have a criminal who’s
committed heinous crimes –
murder, rape, and so forth.
He has been prosecuted,
and he’s about to be executed.
But what if
he’s successfully reanimated?
That means he’s served
his sentence against society
and under the process
of double jeopardy,
he can’t be prosecuted again.
And this is a serious problem.
What’s your point, Doc?
With a one-hour wait, I’m afraid
you cannot be revived.
It is indeed, um,
a death sentence.
It’s my body!
I want him to do it!
No, I want to live!
I want to live again!
I want to live!
Noble: Thomas McMonigle
is executed by lethal gas
on February 20, 1948.
[ Slow motion ] No!
Noble: McMonigle’s death
ends Cornish’s ambitions
to bring the dead to life.
The legal risks are now obvious.
Robert Cornish,
becomes just a footnote
in the history of science.
Brainwashing –
science fiction or science fact?
Psychiatrist Dr. Ewen Cameron
believes he has the answer.
The C.I.A. agrees.
With their backing,
Cameron will stop at nothing
to manipulate the mind
and change patients’ memories
Imagine, if you can,
taking control of another mind.
Make someone think
what you want them to think,
do what you want them to do.
50 years ago,
American secret agents
went looking for a doctor
ambitious enough
to overlook
the questionable morality
of reprogramming human brains,
yet talented enough
to pull it off.
And they found
just the right man.
Dr. Ewen Cameron,
one of Canada’s
foremost psychiatrists.
Cameron wants
to throw out old ideas
and revolutionize psychiatry
with a new approach.
Cameron is living
in the industrial era.
And bigger, better, faster –
that’s what everyone
is thinking about,
and that’s what he’s thinking
about in terms of psychiatry.
Noble: He has a steady stream
of patients to treat.
I get these terrible pains
in my stomach.
And I worry.
About what?
The others.
All of the others.
Sit down, please.
I don’t do the couch.
Well, Freud’s technique
is very popular,
but the problem with it
is that it takes a long time.
And, so,
he just wasn’t a fan of that.
So, he’s thinking
there must be a way
to bring modern technology,
medication to fix people
in a much faster rate
than Freud had.
Jane: And everybody knows it.
They must hate me.
Jane, I believe people
like yourself shield themselves
from the underlying cause
of their disorder.
I will help you
to confront it.
I will then give you
something better to replace it.
You can do that?
Cameron’s idea is that
what we ought to do
is go deeply into the brain,
find the thought patterns
that are causing
the person to be ill,
and instead, implant more
of what he considered to be
more positive ways of thinking.
So that scraping process
or washing,
that’s where we got the term
They must hate me.
Noble: Cameron records
Jane’s feelings about herself,
then plays them back to her
again and again.
She has to accept
her negative feelings
before he can give her
positive ones.
And everybody knows it.
They must hate me.
I am pathetic.
And everybody knows it.
Stop it.
They must hate me.
Stop it.
I am pathetic.
He would use looped messages
over and over and over and over.
Many patients
either didn’t respond
or would get very angry
and storm out,
so then he started drugging them
to keep them involved
in the experiments.
Noble: Cameron says he’s injecting
his patients with drugs
to make them more receptive
to his methods.
Instead of brainwashing…
Give me your arm,
…he calls it
“psychic driving.”
What is that?
It’s just to make you
more receptive to the treatment.
It’s called sodium amytal.
Britt: Sodium amytal
is one of a suite of medications
that are commonly called
truth serums.
What they do is they make people
very relaxed
and some people
very suggestible.
He even claimed that he had
an open-door policy,
which is probably true,
but if you are under
the influence of sodium amytal,
you’re probably not gonna be
getting up and leaving
of your own accord.
Jane: And everybody knows it.
They must hate me.
Cameron believes his drugs
will break down
the patient’s resistance
and get to the core
of their psychiatric problems.
How do you feel
about yourself now?
I guess if people do hate me,
it’s just because I’m pathetic.
And is that good?
That’s awful.
Now Cameron will erase
those old, bad thoughts,
and replace them with good ones.
He would take the person’s
personalty, memories, identity,
wipe them out
and then insert new ideas
and new perspectives
that he approved of,
which raises the question,
who gets to decide
what’s the right way
to look at the world?
Jane: People admire
and respect me.
Noble: Cameron keeps some patients
in prolonged sleep.
He plays them the same recording
up to 20 hours a day.
Because I am
a great person.
for 10 days straight.
People admire and respect me.
Because I am a great person.
Ross: One of the hallmarks
of Cameron’s approach
was he would take
different techniques
that had been used individually
and combine them all
into one package
in the same patient
at the same time,
without the patient really
having that explained to them
or understanding
what was going on or why.
Because I am
a great person.
Hello, Jane.
Hello, Doctor.
Do you recall
what you’ve just said?
People think I’m great.
They do.
Noble: Cameron publishes
his findings in 1956,
claiming astonishing success.
He’s now gunning
for a Nobel prize.
Well, the Nobel prize
is really the pinnacle
of academic success.
It’s certainly
not about the money.
It’s not about the fame.
It’s about your peers
labeling you as brilliant,
and that’s what
Cameron is after.
Only people like Einstein
win the Nobel prize,
so it’s a pretty lofty goal,
but that’s where
Cameron’s going.
He has really one thought
and that is
to revolutionize psychiatry
and win the nobel prize.
Noble: But his techniques
catch the attention
of a different organization –
the C.I.A.
Noble: Dr. Ewen Cameron plans to change
the field of psychiatry forever
with his new technique,
psychic driving.
I am a positive person.
Dr. Cameron,
a Mr. Angeles is here.
Oh, yes.
Send him in.
George, why don’t we
take a break?
Don’t worry.
We’ll soon crack
this problem of yours.
One of my
more challenging cases.
Mr. Angeles.
Call me Clarence.
Yes, I got your letter,
but I’m sorry to say
I’m not familiar
with the Society for the
Investigation of Human Ecology.
The Society for the
Investigation of Human Ecology
was a front organization
that the C.I.A. created
to fund research
they were interested in,
such as Ewen Cameron’s.
They were interested in him
because he was erasing –
wiping out a person’s memories.
You could use that
on a Soviet spy or a diplomat,
and then implant new attitudes
that you wanted.
Noble: The C.I.A.
funds Cameron’s research.
is too attractive to ignore.
How are you today?
Not good, Doctor.
But you do
remember the sentence?
What sentence?
People admire you.
[ Scoffs ]
If only.
You better come inside.
Cameron’s methods
are failing.
So he uses
increasingly potent drugs.
This time, we’re gonna
put you under a little deeper.
See if we can’t
drive that message home.
Will it hurt?
Britt: The reason that we know
so much about what Cameron did
is that he published
very widely,
and that’s how we know about
all the different medications
that he tried.
That he tried LSD, that he tried
sodium amytal, a barbiturate,
and sernyl,
which is a form of PCP
or what’s known
on the streets as angel dust.
There just wasn’t anything
that he would not try
in his pursuit
of the Nobel prize.
Still, Cameron fails to embed
new thoughts
in the patients’ brains.
Even when they remember
the words,
they’re just words
with no emotional meaning.
They seem to resist
I just need more time.
This will be
Nobel prize-winning.
It will!
[ Door slams ]
Ross: The C.I.A.’s mind control
program was called “MK-Ultra.”
And within it, one of
was Ewen Cameron’s, at $60,000,
which is the equivalent
of a half million today.
For this investment, of course,
the C.I.A.
was expecting results.
Noble: Cameron locks patients
in isolation chambers.
He deprives them of sight
and sound for days at a time.
for your next treatment.
Cameron tries everything
to wipe his patients’ minds,
including electricity.
[ Electricity hums ]
[ Crackles ]
Electroconvulsive therapy, ECT,
is a method where you put
electrodes on a person’s skull
and pass electricity
through their brain,
which causes them
to have a seizure,
which, in turn,
treats a mental disorder.
And Ewen Cameron used this
as part of his method
for wiping out memories.
[ Electricity crackles ]
Noble: Cameron’s use
of electric shocks is extreme,
even by the standards
of his day.
If experts in shock therapy
would use
between 70 and 150 volts,
Cameron would use 150 volts.
If the duration of that shock
was acceptable
between .1 and one second,
Cameron would use one second.
Noble: Some patients
receiving a total
of 900 electric shocks.
What is your name?
Don’t worry.
It’s part of the process.
I’ll sort
your memories out.
In some cases,
Cameron’s treatments wipe away
not only bad memories,
but good ones, too.
George: My life is worth
just as much as anybody else’s.
I am not afraid
of anything.
Some patients
hear the repeated messages
up to half a million times.
Some are put in the isolation
chamber for a month.
Some receive
hundreds of electric shocks.
You do remember the sentence.
Jane: It hurt.
How do you feel
about yourself now?
This will be
Nobel prize-winning. It will!
continuous psychic battery,
no matter what drugs
or shock therapy he uses,
he can’t make positive thoughts
stick in the patients’ minds.
[ Telephone rings ]
[ Telephone rings ]
Oh, no, no. No.
I’m working on it right now.
I-I think it’s a breakthrough.
No. No.
No, I j– I just need more time.
Really, it’s –
[ Dial tone ]
Noble: In 1960,
the C.I.A. cuts off his funding.
He has failed
to brainwash anyone.
It’s clear
that many of Cameron’s patients
didn’t benefit
from the extreme treatment
that he offered them.
Some of his patients complained
that his treatment
had reduced them to infancy,
and it also seems
that some of his patients
who had no history
of mental illness
some of these extreme therapies.
One man who had come to Cameron
for treatment
over his grief over his mother
couldn’t remember that, in fact,
his mother had died
in his own arms.
Noble: Cameron never wins
the Nobel prize.
But he certainly scrambles
some of his patients’ minds.
Famed 19th-century scientist
Louis Pasteur
believes he has created
a new vaccine
that will prevent rabies,
a terrifying disease
and 100% lethal.
To prove the effectiveness
of his treatment,
he takes one of the biggest
gambles in medical history.
He injects rabies
into a little boy.
Louis Pasteur was a 19th-century
scientific superstar,
who created a cure for a vicious
and always-fatal disease…
or so he said.
To prove his vaccine,
he needs to test it
on a little boy
who has come to him for help.
gambles the child’s life,
but keeps to himself the fact
that these dice are loaded.
9-year-old Joseph Meister
has been bitten savagely
by a mad dog.
No, no.
No, Joseph.
No, don’t sit down. No.
Joseph’s mother travels
more than 200 miles to Paris.
It is not much further.
We have come so far.
Joseph, what are you?
You are my soldier.
She’s searching
for the only man in the world
who may be able to save her son.
The great Louis Pasteur,
one of the scientific heroes
of his age.
Pasteur’s experiments
have confirmed germ theory
and are revolutionizing
His method of killing bacteria
with heat, Pasteurization,
is saving untold lives
and his vaccines
are protecting livestock
from incurable diseases.
Pasteur found that in low doses,
giving sheep
the Anthrax bacteria
gave them immunity
rather than the disease.
Noble: Now Pasteur plans to use
to tackle
a 100% lethal disease — rabies.
[ Dog growling ]
Rabies is caused by a virus
that you get
from puncturing of the skin,
usually from an animal bite,
and it travels up the nerves
from one nerve to the next nerve
to the next nerve
until it finally gets
into the brain.
Once it gets into the brain,
it causes
a generalized infection,
which is called encephalitis.
The neurons in the muscles
in the throat become paralyzed
so that you can’t even swallow
your own saliva,
so that you froth at the mouth,
and ultimately you become mad.
Noble: Pasteur’s vaccines
cannot cure disease,
but they can prevent infection.
Rabies is uniquely suited
to testing a vaccine.
It has a built-in early warning
system that infection is coming.
There’s a long time period
between the first bite
and the time
of the encephalitis,
which is usually
more than a month.
And that was critical
for Pasteur’s approach
to the disease.
Noble: This incubation period
should allow time for a vaccine
to stop the rabies virus
in its tracks.
To prove it,
he must test it on a human
who has recently been bitten.
Pasteur needs Joseph Meister,
and Joseph’s mother
puts all her faith in Pasteur.
The Meisters were peasants
who lived far
from the capital of Paris.
But even there,
Pasteur’s name was well-known.
Joseph Meister’s mother
was determined to do
whatever she could for her son,
even if that meant exhausting
the family’s savings,
taking a train
all the way to the capital
to see the great Pasteur.
And she did it.
I mean, she accomplished that.
That was no small feat.
but he cannot be certain
Joseph has rabies.
Not every bite from
a rabid animal is infectious.
Was the dog rabid?
Can we be certain?
She thinks so.
They shot him.
And the bites
occurred yesterday?
The day before yesterday.
The clock is ticking.
If Joseph has rabies,
it is already spreading
through his nervous system.
Because Pasteur is a chemist,
not a medical doctor,
he must convince
Jacques Grancher,
director of
the Hospital of Sick Children,
to administer the vaccine.
What does he think?
Did you tell him about the dogs?
We are looking
at all the evidence.
Don’t worry.
So you have discussed
all your research with him?
Pasteur says his experiments
on dogs prove the vaccine works.
Vitkun: They made
a weakened form of the disease,
and according to Pasteur’s
written reports,
they injected 50 dogs
with this weakened form
of the rabies disease
the dogs developed immunity
and did not get rabies.
Noble: Grancher will inject rabies
into the boy,
but if Joseph
is not already infected,
Grancher and Pasteur
will be committing murder.
This is a little boy’s life.
Are we truly confident that
the treatment will not fail?
And if he has rabies,
he will die if we do nothing.
Emile, please.
But it’s not certain
that Joseph has rabies,
nor that the vaccine will work.
The problem for Pasteur was that
this was new ground entirely.
Nobody had taken a drug
from an experimental animal
into humans before,
and so he had no idea
what effect this drug
might have in the boy.
This might hurt.
Not as much as the dog,
I promise.
You are a very brave boy.
It’s all right.
I’m a soldier.
Noble: Grancher sticks the needle
deep into Joseph’s stomach
and administers
the first painful injection.
The injections go on for days.
Every shot more virulent,
more deadly than the last.
On the 10th day, Joseph receives
the final injection,
but Pasteur ups the ante.
This shot is 100% rabies,
worse than the bite
from a rabid animal.
Vitkun: He is exposing the boy
to an unnecessary risk,
but Pasteur needs to do this
to scientifically prove
that his vaccine has worked.
And this is a vaccine which
could save countless lives.
Noble: If Joseph lives,
it means Pasteur is right,
but if Pasteur is wrong,
the boy will pay the price.
Pasteur’s assistant, Emile Roux,
quits in protest.
This is murder, Louis.
And I want no part of it.
Emile Roux knows something
that the others do not.
Louis Pasteur has been lying.
Noble: The life
of 9-year-old Joseph Meister
hangs in the balance,
and Louis Pasteur
is hiding something vital.
This is murder, Louis.
In 1971,
Pasteur’s research notebooks
are made public.
They reveal
that he had not completed
a single dog trial
using this vaccine,
and his assistant knew it.
So you have discussed
all your research with him?
this is a little boy’s life.
This is a page from Pasteur’s
actual laboratory notebook,
and in here, he is recording
the results of his first test
of the rabies vaccine.
He’s going to perform these
on a series of 10 dogs.
He begins on the 28th of May and
he finishes on the 9th of June.
in order to evaluate the safety
and efficacy of the vaccine,
he needs a period
of at least 30 days
to make that determination.
We know that Pasteur injected
Joseph Meister on July 6th
with the rabies vaccine.
We also know
that 30 days had not elapsed,
but Pasteur had told authorities
that he had actually completed
the testing of the vaccine
on 50 dogs.
His notebook makes clear
that, in fact,
he hadn’t completed his testing
on a single animal.
Noble: Pasteur’s own notebooks
prove he was lying
when he claimed
his vaccine definitely worked.
And there are worse secrets.
This is another page from
Pasteur’s laboratory notebook.
You can see the entry
for June 22nd
and the story of Fillette,
a young girl,
who has been bitten
by a rabid dog.
She’s taken
to the hospital at Saint Denis,
and Pasteur records
how he went there
and how she received
two injections
of his rabies vaccine.
Unfortunately, she died.
We don’t know why she died.
What we do know is that Pasteur
did not relate
the details of this injection
to the authorities,
when he was making a case
to try the vaccine
for the first time
on Joseph Meister.
Noble: His assistant Roux must
have known about this death.
This is my decision.
The girl, Louis.
Remember the girl.
We begin tonight.
It’s this real tension
between what’s going to be good
for this individual child
and what’s going to be good
for the, maybe,
tens of thousands of people
who will benefit
by the availability
of a proven, reliable treatment
for rabies.
[ Dog growls ]
Pasteur’s gamble pays off.
[ Pasteur chuckles ]
A month
after the final injection,
Joseph Meister
remains free of rabies.
My friends, I have to say
when Dr. Grancher told me
he had a small boy who may be
Noble: Pasteur announces
the first ever human vaccine
developed by science.
He has triumphed again.
Ladies and gentlemen,
this will save our children.
It will save
our children’s children.
[ Applause ]
Noble: The vaccine is used
80 times that year
with 100% successful results.
Pasteur’s gamble went far beyond
the development
of a vaccine for rabies.
He essentially gave birth to
the entire field of immunology.
Had his experiments not worked
and had the boy not survived,
we could have seen a setback
to the field of immunology
that could have lasted
for decades.
As it was, the emergence
of vaccines for diseases
such as polio and typhoid
and measles
have saved literally
millions of people.
Noble: Pasteur dies 10 years later
a national hero.

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